Electrical work is the work done on a charged particle by an electric field. The equation for 'electrical' work is equivalent to that of 'mechanical' work:
The electrical work per unit of charge, when moving a negligible test charge between two points, is defined as the voltage between those points.
Particles that are free to move, if positively charged, normally tend towards regions of lower voltage (net negative charge), while if negatively charged they tend to shift towards regions of higher voltage (net positive charge).
However, any movement of a positive charge into a region of higher voltage requires external work to be done against the field of the electric force, work equal to that electric field would do in moving that positive charge the same distance in the opposite direction. Similarly, it requires positive external work to transfer a negatively charged particle from a region of higher voltage to a region of lower voltage.
The electric force is a conservative force: work done by a static electric field is independent of the path taken by the charge. There is no change in the voltage (electric potential) around any closed path; when returning to the starting point in a closed path, the net of the external work done is zero. The same holds for electric fields.
A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aestheticphysical item or artistic creation. Apart from "work of art", which may be used of any work regarded as art in its widest sense, including works from literature and music, these terms apply principally to tangible, portable forms of visual art:
"Work" is a song recorded by Barbadian singer Rihanna for her eighth studio album, Anti (2016). The song features a verse by Canadian rapper Drake. The artists co-wrote the single with PartyNextDoor, Allen Ritter, Rupert Thomas, R. Stephenson, Monte Moir, and Boi-1da; the latter is also the producer.
Upon its release, "Work" received mixed reviews from music critics. The song debuted at number nine and has so far peaked at number seven on the Billboard Hot 100, becoming Rihanna's 27th and Drake's 15th top ten entry on the chart. It has also peaked within the top ten of the charts in Australia, Canada, France, Hungary, Spain, and the United Kingdom.
Writing and development
"Work" was written by the artists, PartyNextDoor, Allen Ritter, Rupert "Sevn" Thomas, Monte Moir, R. Stephenson, and Boi-1da; the latter is also the producer. In the summer of 2015, Thomas, Ritter, Boi-1da and Martin Mason among others, stayed at Drake house in Los Angeles for a mid-week period. Thomas described the time spent at the home as a "beat factory, everyone was sitting there working and collaborating with each other."
Thomas created a beat which was dancehall-influenced; he later played it for Boi-1da to which he positively responded, "We’re both Jamaican-Canadian. It was just something in our DNA, so it woke him up, and we started remembering all these old dancehall songs from the '90s." Boi-1da came with up idea for sampling an "old school dancehall rhythm" and after that the chords were made with Ritter and past it, "everything went organically".
According to the band's bio on ATP Recordings site, "the music captured on this material is an ethereal, resonant execution of what could be described as eastern acoustic punk. Likened to the voyeurism of Sandy Bull, Sir Richard Bishop, or Jack Rose style raga's reinterpreted at times with Drive Like Jehu, Minutemen punk velocity, other moments emotionally spiraling toward a haunting, ethereal beauty akin to Vashti Bunyan lost in the desert of a desolate western. Blending acoustic and minimal electric guitars with a multitude of percussion instrumentation, digital tabla machines, sci-fi electronics and feedback, this avant garde collective of envelope pushing splatter artists have created a new presence. Modern mantras of electric silence that fuse consciousness into a recording of vibrant, transitional material, blending geographic as well as cultural diversity. The sound of stillness amidst chaos, light below the depths, dancing full circle into the center of what could only be called Anywhere".
The terms "online" and "offline" have specific meanings in regard to computer technology and telecommunications in which "online" indicates a state of connectivity, while "offline" indicates a disconnected state. Common vernacular extended from their computing and telecommunication meanings and refers specifically to an Internet connection. Lastly, in the area of human interaction and conversation, discussions taking place during a business meeting are "online", while issues that do not concern all participants of the meeting should be "taken offline" — continued outside of the meeting.
In computer technology and telecommunication, online and offline are defined by Federal Standard 1037C. They are states or conditions of a "device or equipment" or of a "functional unit". To be considered online, one of the following may apply to a system: it is under the direct control of another device; it is under the direct control of the system with which it is associated; or it is available for immediate use on demand by the system without human intervention.